The Military Prosecution Department was established for the first time by the Fundamental Law that was governing the Republic of Rwanda after the 1994 Genocide until the promulgation of the new Constitution in 2003. By then, the Military Prosecution was divided into two departments, one of them dealing with cases relating to Junior Officers and men (Military Prosecution) and an other dealing with cases relating to Senior Officers (General Military Prosecution).
The Military Prosecution Department was established as one entity by the 2003 Constitution, in its article 163.
As provided by the Constitution, the organization, powers and functioning of the Military Prosecution Department were later on determined by the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20/03/2004 determining the Organization, Powers and Functioning of Prosecution Service as modified and completed to date.
The mission of Military Prosecution is to reinforce order and discipline in the Rwanda Defence Force through preventive measures against criminality and punishing defaulters.
Efficient investigation of purported crime, reinstating the victims quickly and punishment of offenders remains at the core of delivering prosecution services in the RDF.
The Military Prosecution Department has the powers of investigating and prosecuting before the Military Courts all offences committed by persons subject to the jurisdiction of military courts.